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This is the latest accepted revision, reviewed on 17 April 2018. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire. There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. With a long history of literature in the form of Middle Persian before Islam, Persian was the first language in the Muslim world to break through Arabic’s monopoly on writing, and the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition in many eastern courts. Persian is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the Tajiks. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century.
Native Iranian Persian speakers call it Fārsi. The origin of the name Farsi and the place of origin of the language which is Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs. The Academy of Persian Language and Literature has declared that the name Persian is more appropriate, as it has the longer tradition in western languages and better expresses the role of the language as a mark of cultural and national continuity. The international language-encoding standard ISO 639-1 uses the code fa, as its coding system is mostly based on the local names. Radio Liberty use “Persian Service” for their broadcasts in the language. Persian is an Iranian language belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. As a written language, Old Persian is attested in royal Achaemenid inscriptions.
The oldest known text written in Old Persian is from the Behistun Inscription. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, which is at a time when Old Persian was the only form of Persian used. He relates that the Armenians spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. The complex grammatical conjugation and declension of Old Persian yielded to the structure of Middle Persian in which the dual number disappeared, leaving only singular and plural, as did gender. Although the “middle period” of the Iranian languages formally begins with the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the transition from Old to Middle Persian had probably already begun before the 4th century.
Archived from the original on 2017, the lexicon of the language have remained relatively stable. Modern Iranian Persian and Afghan Persian are written using a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet, the vast majority of modern Iranian Persian and Dari text is written with the Arabic script. Ingen bunden artikkel finst, the dialect spoken in Tehran rose to prominence. Central Asian Turks became familiar with Islam and urban culture.
The native name of Middle Persian was Parsig or Parsik, after the name of the ethnic group of the southwest, that is, “of Pars”, Old Persian Parsa, New Persian Fars. This is the origin of the name Farsi as it is today used to signify New Persian. Gernot Windfuhr considers new Persian as an evolution of the Old Persian language and the Middle Persian language but also states that none of the known Middle Persian dialects is the direct predecessor of Modern Persian. Early New Persian remains largely intelligible to speakers of Contemporary Persian, as the morphology and, to a lesser extent, the lexicon of the language have remained relatively stable. New Persian” is taken to replace Middle Persian in the course of the 8th to 9th centuries, under Abbasid rule. With the decline of the Abbasids began the reestablishment of Persian national life and Persians laid the foundations for a renaissance in the realm of letters.
Abbas of Merv is mentioned as being the earliest minstrel to chant verse in the newer Persian tongue and after him the poems of Hanzala Badghisi were among the most famous between the Persian-speakers of the time. The first poems of the Persian language, a language historically called Dari, emerged in Afghanistan. The first significant Persian poet was Rudaki. He flourished in the 10th century, when the Samanids were at the height of their power. The language spread geographically from the 11th century on and was the medium through which among others, Central Asian Turks became familiar with Islam and urban culture. New Persian was widely used as a trans-regional lingua franca, a task for which it was particularly suitable due to its relatively simple morphological structure and this situation persisted until at least 19th century.